What are the Differences Between a Clinical Psychologist, Psychiatrist, Social Worker, Mental Health Counselor?

Clinical Psychologist:

A Clinical Psychologist is a Doctor who holds a Doctorate in Psychology (Psy.D.) or a Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology (Ph.D.). The basic difference between the 2 degrees of Psy.D. and Ph.D. is the rigor and higher standards of the PhD Dissertation which often takes on average 8-years to complete. The Degree of Ph.D. is the highest and most prestigious degree bestowed by Academia. PhDs are scientist-practioners ~ Clinical and Scientific Doctors utilizing evidence based psychotherapeutic treatments with their patients.

A Clinical Psychologist has spent at least 5-6 years of doctoral graduate work strictly studying psychology, including 5 years of clinical experience assessing and treating patients under supervision, then moving on to complete 1-2 years of internship assessing and treating patients under supervision, followed by an additional 1-2 years of Post Doctoral Fellowships before qualifying for the right to sit for the licensing examination. * Additional course work, education, and training in brain-behavior-neurology-neuroscience, and additional Post-Doctoral Training of 2 to 3 additional years is common for a Clinical Psychologist who is also a Clinical NeuroPsychologist.

A Clinical Psychologist does not prescribe medication  in the State of Florida. Instead, a Clinical Psychologist provides psychotherapy through their in-depth knowledge of psychological theory, a plethora of scientific driven psychotherapy modalities, research and diagnostic testing. Clinical Psychologists also specialize in psychological testing and are the only group of clinicians trained to do so. Psychological testing requires years of training that involves not only how to administer the psychological tests, but also how to score and integrate the psychological test information with clinical interviews, background information, knowledge of personality theory, human development and research.

The title “Licensed Clinical Psychologist” can only be used by someone who has completed the above training and has then passed both national and state licensing examinations. Informally, a licensed clinical psychologist may be referred to as a “therapist,” “psychotherapist” “counselor,” or “clinician.” However, these are more general terms often used by the lay person and that can be used by other mental health professionals.


A Psychiatrist is a Medical Doctor (M.D.) who has graduated from a medical school. A psychiatrist’s training focuses on general medicine while in medical school. They will then go on to 3-4 years of residency where they will specialize in psychiatry. While for many years in the past, the psychiatrist normally prescribed medications and also delivered psychotherapy. However, their role has changed today. For the most part, psychiatrists now do psychiatric evaluations for the purpose of determining if an individual would be appropriate for treatment with medications.

Most psychiatrists are now currently specializing only in psychopharmacology for the psychiatric disorder symptoms presentation. And If so determined,  the psychiatrist will prescribe the medications and then follows the patient for medication management and assessing the symptomatology. Medication management includes initially following the patient closely until they are stabilized with the proper type of psychiatric medication and medication dosage (usually once every 1-2 weeks until stabilization occurs) and then after that the psychiatrist will usually see the patient once every 1-3 months for medication follow-up and maintenance.

Social Worker:

Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) holds a Masters degrees.  LCSWs are not doctors. Their training consists of 2-years of graduate school and 1-year of internship. LCSW’s assess, diagnose, intervene and treat individuals, families and groups with psychosocial problems. They will frequently partner with a psychiatrist if they feel medication should be part of the treatment protocol. They frequently partner with Clinical Psychologists who provide psychotherapy and clinical psychological testing.

Mental Health Counselor:

Licensed Mental Health Counselor (LMHC) holds a Masters degree in counseling. LMHCs are not doctors. They have completed 2-years of graduate training and 1-year of work experience under supervision. A LMHC provides counseling to individuals, families and groups. They, too, will partner with psychiatrist or clinical psychologist for treatment protocol.

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In Conclusion

The most significant differences between mental health professionals are specialties, years of education and training, and experience. Most qualified mental health professionals will refer a patient to another professional if the specific type of treatment needed is outside their scope of practice. Additionally, some mental health professionals will occasionally work together using a variety of treatment options such as concurrent medication and therapeutic strategies.

Shawna Freshwater, PhD

Shawna Freshwater, PhD

Hi, I am Dr. Shawna Freshwater, a PhD licensed Clinical Psychologist, Neuropsychologist, and Holistic Practitioner. ** I provide Psychotherapy, Coaching, Healing, Diagnostic testing & Mental Health Check-ups. ** I meet the needs of my patients and clients that are confidential and convenient to their schedule. ** I offer Remote / Online secure interactive video conferencing to USA residents and International clients. ** I also provide Concierge services at your home, office, or private location of your choice if you reside in South Florida Major Cities. ***Please see my website for more information about my credentials and areas of expertise. www.SpaciousTherapy.com Thank you. Dr. Freshwater


  1. Donna D. on February 12, 2024 at 10:59 am

    Do you know of a clinical psychiatrist in the Ocala area who could provide personal care ( non-group therapy) for my husband? Thank you.
    Donna Davidson

    • Shawna Freshwater, PhD on February 25, 2024 at 8:05 pm

      Thank you for your message.
      If you would like assistance, please reach out through the Contact on website, so that we can assist you.

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